Archives for posts with tag: opium

In the late 1990s, pharmaceutical companies reassured the medical community that patients would not become addicted to prescription opioid pain relievers, and healthcare providers began to prescribe them at greater rates. This subsequently led to widespread diversion and misuse of these medications before it became clear that these medications could indeed be highly addictive.

National Institute on Drug Abuse[1]

 [This is Fred and I’m here with more bad news about heroin and the other opioids now destroying us, plus some cheerful speculation. Note the paragraph quoted above. Apparently in the 1990s we didn’t understand that opium and its relatives are highly addictive, even though it was obvious 200 years earlier. See our recent blog[2] on Thomas de Quincey’s Confessions of an English Opium Eater.[3] So I guess our great planners didn’t expect patients to start abusing opioids once those drugs became plentiful by prescription. And once more people became addicted certainly no one expected the criminal class to fill the increased demand with their own, informal products. Who would ever dream such a thing?

Also, we still don’t know if opioids actually treat pain when they are used in the long term. According to one recent study: “Evidence is insufficient to determine the effectiveness of long-term opioid therapy for improving chronic pain and function. Evidence supports a dose dependent risk for serious harms.”[4] Translation?  The long term benefits are unclear, but the dangers are obvious.

Not to worry, the National Institutes of Health [NIH], and their parent, the Department of Health and Human Services [HHS] have swung into action. Today society has a problem with opioid addiction and they will solve it by:

  1. Improving access to treatment and recovery services;
  2. Promoting use of overdose-reversing drugs;
  3. Strengthening our understanding of the epidemic through better public health surveillance;
  4. Providing support for cutting-edge research on pain and addiction; [and]
  5. Advancing better practices for pain management.[5]

So what could go wrong? Well, think about it. If we’re going to improve access to “treatment and recovery” services [Point 1], what does that mean? Do we have some magic cure that will wipe away addiction? I don’t think so. It’s very difficult to ween an addict from his [or her] opioid of choice. It was that way for Thomas de Quincey, and the situation hasn’t changed.  And if the weening process takes a long time, that sounds expensive. Taxpayers beware!

OK, but surely it would be a good thing to promote “overdose-reversing drugs.” [Point 2] Yes it would, because those drugs prevent death by overdose and it’s always good to do that. But overdose drugs don’t cure addiction, so we still have the problem of treating the survivors.

All right, then what about Point 3? NIH wants to know more about the size of the problem, how many addicts there are, and so forth. Again, who can quarrel with that? “Knowledge is power,” we’re told;[6] and why rent a rowboat for addicts if we really need a passenger liner? So yes, by all means study the problem, but not at the expense of making progress elsewhere. And by the way, the early returns are in. See Crappy News, the next section.

How about “cutting edge research” [Point 4]; is that a good idea? Practically always, say I. If our scientists research pain, perhaps they’ll develop new ways to treat sufferers without dosing them with addictive substances. That’s got to be a “better practice” [Point 5] than what we’ve been doing.

Then what about “cutting edge research” on addiction itself? Should we work on that as well? Yes, and we’ll discuss that later, under Vaccines.]

The Crappy News, or Why One Should Avoid the Drudge Report Early in the Morning

So the other day I was minding my own business, checking the Drudge Report, when I happened on a piece from Reuters that said: “More than third of [all] U.S. adults [were] prescribed opioids in 2015.[7] [Drudge is my substitute for a morning tabloid; feel free to pick a different service if you want; but definitely we all need something to read at breakfast.]

Ugh? Looking further I found the original data, or at least an abstract of it.[8] Officially the study is called the 2015 National Survey on Drug Use and Health [NSDUH]. So let’s sketch the findings. What else can you do with an Abstract?

  • In 2015 72,600 eligible civilian, noninstitutionalized adults were selected to participate in the study, and 51,200 completed the survey interview.
  • Based on these inputs, NSDUH estimated that, in 2015, 91.8 million (37.8%) of U.S. civilian, noninstitutionalized adults used prescription opioids.
  • 11.5 million people (4.7% of all adults) misused opioids; and 1.9 million (0.8%) had an opioid use disorder.
  • Among adults with a prescription, 12.5% reported they misused it; and of these, 16.7% reported a “prescription opioid use disorder.”
  • Most commonly people who misused opioids did so to relieve physical pain (63.4%). Does that sound familiar? Check out Thomas de Quincy’s story, referenced above.
  • Misuse and use disorders were most common with adults who were uninsured, unemployed, had low income, or had behavioral health problems.
  • Among adults who misused opioids, 59.9% reported using them without a prescription, and 40.8% obtained prescription opioids – for their most recent episode – for free from friends or relatives.[9]

So there you have it. Lots of doctors prescribe opioids; more than one-thired of U.S. adults had prescriptions in 2015; and some of those also used opioids without a prescription. Thank you, NSDUH, for that insight.

And some patients get violent if their doctors refuse to write prescriptions.[10] The states are upset; they argue over-prescription and the resulting addictions are impacting state resources;[11] and they’re beginning to sue the drug companies [and others] they think are responsible. Congress is alert, and will hold hearings on the matter.[12] Mexico is producing more and more opium to satisfy the demand growing in the U.S.[13] [Frankly, I didn’t know Mexico produced any opium; I thought most of the world’s supply came from our dependency, Afghanistan.] And, of course, our medical establishment is studying the problem that, one could argue[14], it created.

Vaccines

None of this is good, but is there sunlight behind the clouds? A month or so ago a friend[15] sent us an article about medicines that fight opioids and other addictive substances.[16] Apparently this has been researched since the 1970s, although without much recent success. Right now therapists have only three medications – methadone, buprenorphine, and naltrexone – to use to help the opioid addicted “get clean” and stay drug free. They work, but “not perfectly.”[17]

Current research is directed toward finding vaccines to directly counter opioid addiction. Most foreign substances are blocked from entering the brain by something called the blood-brain barrier. Opioids are an exception to that. They are very tiny molecules; can penetrate the barrier and enter the brain; and then do their damage unopposed. Opioids may lose their advantage – of small size – if they are attacked by antibodies “that bind to the drug molecules, creating complexes that are too large to cross into the brain.”[18] If the brain isn’t accessed, “there’s no high.”[19] And, one might add, there’s no corresponding brain damage to reinforce later addictive behaviors.

So the research is directed at triggering the human immune system to directly attack opioids. To (i) convert opioids to larger things that will not pass into the brain, or (ii) flush them out of the body before they reach the brain, or (iii) to do both. The Scripps Research Institute in La Jolla, CA, and the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research in Silver Spring, MD, have promising lines of study, and may have vaccines ready to begin human trials in the not too distant future. There are other candidates out there as well.

Conclusion

The situation with opioids is grim and looks worse every day, but perhaps there really is sunlight behind the clouds. The important thing for Congress to remember is that, when they’re throwing oodles of money at law enforcement to chase bad guys with drugs, they shouldn’t forget the scientists who, with funding and a bit of luck, may solve this problem for everybody.

Until the next one comes along, of course. Humans are weak, and our criminals are very ingenious. Didn’t you know?

 

[1] This is from the website of the National Institute on Drug Abuse, an organization within NIH. You can find it at https://www.drugabuse.gov/drugs-abuse/opioids/opioid-crisis . It was last updated in June of this year.

[2] That’s the blog of 07/16/2017, Opium Portrayed, at  https://opsrus.wordpress.com/2017/07/16/opium-portrayed/

[3] That’s Confessions of an English Opium Eater, Being an Extract from the Life of a Scholar. It’s currently in print from the Oxford University Press.  It was first published in 1821 in London Magazine, and was picked up in 1886 by George Routledge and Son. You can find the hard copy on Amazon. However, in keeping with blog policy, we found an alternate, free source for the text, this time in an eBook from Project Gutenberg.  Go to http://www.gutenberg.org/files/2040/2040-h/2040-h.htm .

[4] See Annals of Internal Medicine, The Effectiveness and Risks of Long-Term Opioid Therapy for Chronic Pain: A Systematic Review for a National Institutes of Health Pathways to Prevention Workshop (February 17, 2015) at Abstract, available at http://annals.org/aim/article/2089370/effectiveness-risks-long-term-opioid-therapy-chronic-pain-systematic-review .

[5] See n. 1.

[6] See Knowles, Oxford Dictionary of Quotations (6th Ed., 2004) at Proverbs, p. 624, n. 45.

[7] It’s at Reuters Health News, Seaman, More than a third of U.S. adults prescribed opioids in 2015 (July 31, 2017), available at http://www.reuters.com/article/us-health-opioids-prescriptions-idUSKBN1AG2K6 .

[8] The Abstract appears as Prescription Opioid Use, Misuse, and Use Disorders in U.S. Adults: 2015 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (August 1, 2017). You have to pay for a copy if you want to read the underlying article. I don’t know why that’s the case, since the study apparently was funded by our government. Anyway, the abstract is available at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4782928/pdf/nihms753305.pdf .

[9] These findings are paraphrased or directly quoted from the Abstract.

[10] See, e.g., Fox 5, Hundreds mourn doctor slain after denying opioids to patient (August 2, 2017)), available at http://www.fox5ny.com/news/271464646-story .

[11] See Reuters, Raymond, State attorneys general probe opioid drug companies (June 15, 2017) available at http://www.reuters.com/article/us-usa-opioids-idUSKBN1962JJ

[12] See Clair McCaskill speaking to the DNC on July 28, 2016, available at https://www.bing.com/search?q=hthtps%3A%2F%2Fwww.yahoo.com%2Fnews%2Fu-senator-launches-probe-five-top-opioid-drugmakers-165514279 finance.html&form=EDGEAR&qs=PF&cvid=59500fa1e8204d0a8a8906e8292f9679&cc=US&setlang=en-US&elv=AXXfrEiqqD9r3GuelwApuloTP6wVwkOjONBqpuAMtOReD2p9Vv8km70BwEANJJDGrbYQZQruLL%21jduPgTqpAT%212GMOjDF0L2w7LKJr4QVFIa

[13] See RT, US offers to help fund Mexico’s heroin eradication efforts – report (22 April 2017) available at https://www.rt.com/usa/385656-mexico-fund-heroin-reuters/

[14] In fact, there doesn’t really seem to be an argument about this. See n. 1 and the quote that accompanies it.

[15] That’s Dave Feagles. Many thanks, Dave!

[16] See Science News, Gaidos, Vaccines could counter addictive opioids, Vol. 190, No. 1, p. 22 et seq. (July 9, 2016), While we have this article in our library, we don’t have a web  address for it, so we’re citing to the hard copy magazine.

[17] Id. We’re citing to the print version of the article, but don’t have the printed pages before us. We estimate that this information appears around p. 23.

[18] Id. at around p. 24.

[19] Id.

Oh, just, subtle, and mighty opium! [T]hat to the hearts of poor and rich alike, for the wounds that will never heal, and for “the pangs that tempt the spirit to rebel,” bringest an assuaging balm; eloquent opium! that with thy potent rhetoric stealest away the purposes of wrath; and to the guilty man for one night givest back the hopes of his youth, and hands washed pure from blood; and to the proud man a brief oblivion for Wrongs [unaddressed] and insults unavenged ….. Thou only givest these gifts to man; and thou hast the keys of Paradise, oh, just, subtle, and mighty opium!

Thomas de Quincey[1]

 [This is Fred. Phil’s out with exhaustion, heat and otherwise, and asked me to take over today’s lesson. This isn’t an easy thing to do, because he has a list of heavy-duty subjects to cover some day, but most are not in my area of interest, and I don’t know enough to lecture about the rest. It would take too long to research “Philosophical Aspects of Modern Rap,” or “A Linguistic Analysis of Feminist Theory,” or “Will Ancient Spells Work on Mars?” [Although that last one really looks interesting.[2]]

But we’re not blazing new paths today; there’s a deadline; so let’s look for an old subject, one we know something about. How about opioids and our collective addiction to them? Heroin, an opioid, has been around and afflicting people in this country for some time.[3] Opium, the original opioid, has caused problems in the East for centuries and has addicted folks in the West for generations. Most of us kind of know about these things, but ignore them. The current furor about opioids only erupted because there are synthetics now loose in the drug economy. They’re very potent, and deadly, and their users die at a high rate.

So why not frame our current situation with some history? Did you know that opium was a big problem in England in the 18th and 19th Centuries? And what’s the evidence for that? Well, for one thing there’s a very famous book, first published in London Magazine in 1821, that chronicles the opium addiction of an upper class Englishman. My friends in sociology say it’s a classic. The book tells us quite a bit about how the author got addicted, who supplied the stuff, and how many users there were.

It says London had a well-established opium trade in the early 19th Century. The author reported: “Three respectable London druggists, in widely remote quarters of London … assured me that the number of amateur opium-eaters … was at [that] time immense; and that the difficulty of distinguishing those persons to whom habit had rendered opium necessary from such as were purchasing it with a view to suicide, occasioned them [the druggists] daily trouble and disputes.”[4] So why would druggists back then worry about would-be suicides? I don’t know. Perhaps it was a legal requirement. But apparently the prospect of suicide didn’t inhibit sales all that much. The population of users “was immense.”

Also, opium addiction was not just an upper class London phenomenon. Blue-collar types in other parts of England were getting into it, “so much so, that on a Saturday afternoon the counters of the druggists were strewed with pills of one, two, or three grains, in preparation for the known demand of the evening.”[5] The author said this happened because, for a time, opium was less expensive than alcohol, so the working class went with the new thing. But, he said, if the pricing reversed, the new addicts would not follow. “[T]hose eat now who never ate before; [a]nd those who always ate, now [will] eat the more.”[6] That is, opium addicts, once made, would not go back to the old vices simply because the market ordered it.]

The book is Confessions of An English Opium-Eater: Being an Extract from the Life of a Scholar, written by Thomas de Quincey.[7] He lived from 1785 to 1859, and was severely addicted from about 1813 until 1819. If you want to know more, there are some web-based biographies available[8]; but in my view they pretty much track the book; so that’s where we’ll concentrate. As to why De Quincey was a user, look at the quote that opens this piece. Opium held the keys to Paradise.[9]

De Quincey’s Life and Addiction

Or at least it did when he used opium sparingly, and at great intervals, for recreation. But I’m getting ahead of the story. Let’s look at the milestones on his road to and from addiction:

  1. Thomas de Quincey was born on August 5, 1785. His father was a merchant, just starting out, and had good prospects until he died, 7 years later. By my count, that would have been in 1792.
  2. Young Thomas had 4 guardians after that, and was shipped off to various schools for his education, apparently including Eton and an unnamed school at Oxford. “I was sent to various schools, great and small; and was very early distinguished for my classical attainments, especially for my knowledge of Greek. At thirteen I wrote Greek with ease; and at fifteen my command of that language was so great that I not only composed Greek verses in lyric metres [today, “meters”], but could converse in Greek fluently and without embarrassment …”[10]
  3. He tried opium for the first time at age 18, which would have been in 1803. He liked it, and over the next 10 years continued to use it “for the sake of the exquisite pleasure it gave me ….”[11]; but, he said, he spaced out the doses to preserve their effect, and that protected him “from all [the] material bad consequences”[12] of addiction. Or perhaps he just didn’t have the money to buy in quantity. Who knows?
  4. The situation changed in 1813, when he was 28. He had an eruption of a gastro-intestinal problem that first had hit him when he was a teenager. Apparently it was both painful and chronic; so much so that he began to treat himself with daily doses of his favorite drug. “It was not for the purpose of creating pleasure, but of mitigating pain in the severest degree, that I first began to use opium as an article of daily diet.”[13]
  5. He continued until he was thoroughly addicted, and didn’t kick the habit until 1819, six years later. How did he escape? By incrementally reducing his intake until he achieved a zero dose rate; and that wasn’t easy! He tried to do it in the early days, but failed. And he was a mess even after he succeeded. “Think of me as one, even when four months had passed, still agitated, writhing, throbbing, palpitating, shattered, and much perhaps in the situation of him who has been racked …. Meantime, I derived no benefit from any medicine, except one prescribed to me by an Edinburgh surgeon of great eminence, viz., ammoniated tincture of valerian.”[14]
  6. Valerian is an herb you can buy today at the vitamin store, but I’m not saying it will help you conquer opioids. So far as I can tell, there still aren’t any easy cures. Right now a cynic might say our technology isn’t much more effective than what was available to De Quincey 200 years ago. Reports are that there may be a vaccine in our future, but they’re speculative and a subject for a different blog.

Conclusion

His milestones sound pretty contemporary, don’t they? De Quincy, an occasional user of opium, the opioid of his day, liked it so long as he didn’t use a lot. Then one day he used it as a pain killer, began to take daily doses, and went straight down the toilet. And today what are our most popular pain medications? Opioids, for the most part. And where do we get them? Why, from druggists, doctors or street vendors, depending on our budgets. Oh brave new world, you look pretty old to me! I wonder, did 19th Century Londoners have street druggists like ours? If so, did they call them “pushers”? Or was everybody just a druggist?

I’m guessing it’s as hard to kick an opioid addiction today as it was for Thomas de Quincey. He said it was like being born:

[Some conjecture] that it may be as painful to be born as to die.  I think it probable; and during the whole period of diminishing the opium I had the torments of a man passing out of one mode of existence into another.  The issue was not death, but a sort of physical regeneration …. [15]

And once regenerated it was possible for him to be happy again. “[A]nd I may add that ever since, at intervals, I have had a restoration of more than youthful spirits, though under the pressure of difficulties which in a less happy state of mind I should have called misfortunes.”

Opium and its modern relatives can be very attractive until they take control of our lives. Thomas de Quincey discovered that, got out, and was better for it. Myself, I think it’s better not to get in.

See you next week!

 

[1] This quote is from Thomas de Quincey, Confessions of an English Opium Eater, Being an Extract from the Life of a Scholar. Believe it or not, this book is currently in print from the Oxford University Press.  It was first published in 1821 in London Magazine, then was picked up in 1886 by George Routledge and Son. You can find the hard copy on Amazon. However, in keeping with blog policy, we have found an alternate, free source for the text, this time in an eBook from Project Gutenberg.  Go to http://www.gutenberg.org/files/2040/2040-h/2040-h.htm “This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever.  You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.net .” Henceforth the eBook will be cited as “Opium Eaters at __.” Page numbers, if given, will be approximations. The eBook version doesn’t appear to have such things. See Opium Eaters at Part II, The Pleasures of Opium, p. 28-29 for our quote. Even our quote is just a small part of what he actually wrote.

[2] I also like his partial draft of “Faces and Other Things on the Planets,” in which he argues that with modern digital technology any collection of pixels can be morphed into anything else, so why believe NASA’s pictures of celestial objects or any pictures at all?

[3] Check out the Wikipedia posting at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heroin for more information on this subject.

[4] See Opium Eaters at To the Reader, p. 3.

[5] Id.

[6] Id. “… I do not readily believe that any man having once tasted the divine luxuries of opium will afterwards descend to the gross and mortal enjoyments of alcohol ….”

[7]  See note 1.

[8] See, e.g., the home page for the most recent printed edition of De Quincey’s book, at http://robertjhmorrison.com/thomas-de-quincey/ ; and the Wikipedia entry for him at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_De_Quincey .

[9] The Oxford Dictionary of Quotations has a ridiculously shortened version of the original. See Knowles [editor], Oxford  Dictionary of Quotations (6th Edition, 2004) [hereafter, ODQ at __]  at Thomas de Quincy, p. 264, n. 20. “Thou hast the keys of Paradise oh just, subtle and mighty opium.” That reads like someone’s note on a page, next to the real thing, rather than a genuine effort to reflect the original.

[10] See Opium Eaters at Preliminary Confessions, p. 5.

[11] See Opium Eaters at Preliminary Confessions, p. 4.

[12] Id.

[13] See Opium Eater at Preliminary Confessions, p. 4-5

[14] See Opium Eaters at Part II, June 1819, p. 46

[15] See Opium Eaters at Part II, June 1819, p. 46

 

Greetings from the heroin overdose capital of the country. I went to Home Depot yesterday to find decorations to celebrate. H.D. has its Halloween stuff out, so I settled on a 7 ft. plastic skeleton of a horse. I think it glows in the dark. “And I looked, and behold a pale horse; and his name that sat on him was Death.” [Revelations, Ch. 6, v. 8.]  No, I’m not religious, but I try to be literate.

G Sallust[1]

[Hi, this is G. Sallust, and this post no doubt is a first. First and foremost, it’s the first time anyone here has quoted himself in an introduction. You may think that’s not particularly noteworthy; in fact that it’s a ridiculous case of unbridled narcissism, common in the blogosphere; but let’s face it: I’m the only one who’s put those words to paper and they are – really – quite good. It’s also the first time I’ve used a quote within a quote, something you certainly won’t see in the traditional media. That’s a nice touch, don’t you think? And, last but not least, it’s the first time anyone here has reacted directly to local news, rather than skating over the horizon to pursue more lofty goals. Although I’ll admit today’s story will wind up in Afghanistan before we’re done.]

The quote is based on current events; a week or so ago the papers in my area were full of news about an outbreak of heroin overdoses in my state, West Virginia. One small city reported 27 deaths from overdose in just 4 hours.[2] Heroin is not one of my areas of expertise, thank God; but even I knew this wasn’t normal. So I checked into the matter, and what I found is alarming. Heroin overdose deaths are on the rise nationwide, and, while the blight is everywhere, some areas suffer more than others.  Nevertheless, the count of 27 deaths in 4 hours is spectacular; a standout in a dismal field

Overdoses Rising

The Centers for Disease Control report that, as of the end of CY 2014, “… the rate of deaths from drug overdoses [since 2000] has increased 137%, including a 200% increase in the rate of overdose deaths involving opioids (opioid pain relievers and heroin).” [3] That is:

  • Nearly half a million people in the U.S. died from drug overdoses from 2000 to 2014.
  • In 2014 more people died from drug overdoses in the U.S. than in any previous year. Drug overdoses killed approximately 1.5 times more people than motor vehicle crashes.
  • Opioids, primarily prescription pain relievers and heroin, are the main drugs associated with overdose deaths. In 2014, opioids were involved in 28,647 deaths, or 61% of all drug overdose deaths; the rate of opioid overdoses has tripled since 2000. [4]

Also the 2014 data show “two distinct but interrelated” trends: (i) a 15-year increase in overdose deaths involving prescription opioid pain relievers; and (ii) a recent surge in illicit opioid overdose deaths, driven largely by heroin.[5]

What is Heroin? What are Opioids?

That part is easy. Opioids are, simply, drugs derived from or based on opium, or synthesized to emulate opium. They include pain relievers, such as oxycodone and hydrocodone,[6] which are legal if prescribed by a physician; and heroin, which is not.[7] So why do some people chase the opioid experience? Is their pain all that bad? Not necessarily, but opioids also affect the brain regions involved in reward, and can [and apparently often do] induce euphoria.[8]

Synthetic opioids, principally fentanyl and tramadol, are a big problem today. The pharmaceutical versions can be abused, and overdose can be fatal. Additionally there’s a non-pharmaceutical version of fentanyl, manufactured in illegal laboratories that can be toxic. Taken together, overdose deaths due to legal and illegal synthetic opioids “nearly doubled between 2013 and 2014.”[9]

According to the Centers for Disease Control, people who misuse prescription opioids often graduate to heroin, in large part because heroin is cheaper and more available on the street. So it should be no surprise that heroin overdose in the U.S. is rising. “The increased availability of heroin, combined with its relatively low price (compared with diverted prescription opioids) and high purity appear to be major drivers of the upward trend in heroin use and overdose.”[10]  Unfortunately the “trend” looks more like a moonshot than a gentle rise. “Heroin overdose death rates increased by 26% from 2013 to 2014 and have more than tripled since 2010, from 1.0 per 100,000 in 2010 to 3.4 per 100,000 in 2014.”[11]

West Virginia figures[12] indicate that, at the end of 2014, the overdose death rate in the county where I live was 52.3 per 100,000[13], while the rate in the county next door was 104.6 per 100,000.[14] In short, my neighborhood far surpasses the national average. On the bright side, the city I referenced earlier [the one that lost 27 people to heroin in 4 hours] is not in my area. Those 2016 numbers will not affect our local score. Nevertheless the local news isn’t good, and I’m not optimistic for this year.

Afghanistan

If you buy heroin on the street, what actually may kill you: the heroin, or the stuff it’s mixed with? The answer may be, that either can do it. It’s thought, for example, that the heroin responsible for the 27 deaths [in 4 hours] in West Virginia might have been “laced” with something that made it more deadly than usual. The matter was being studied as of mid-August.[15] So what might that substance be? My guess is the non-pharmaceutical version of fentanyl; that’s the illegal version, made for and peddled by drug dealers, and used to give an extra boost to plain, old heroin. But we won’t really know until the toxicology reports come out.

While I don’t know much about fentanyl, or where it’s made, I do know something about heroin. It’s made from opium, which comes from poppies, which mostly are grown in Afghanistan. You remember Afghanistan, don’t you? That’s the country that hosted Osama bin Laden while he planned the [successful] attack on the original World Trade Center. That was September 11, 2001. We and NATO attacked Afghanistan in October of that year, sided with indigenous forces and chased out bin Laden, and then stuck around for years trying to “reconstruct” the country and build a modern democracy there.[16] The direct cost, to us, of that adventure so far amounts to about $686 billion, but the total costs, counting money we haven’t spent yet on wounded veterans, replacement weapons, and so forth,  may be far higher, in excess of $1  trillion.[17]

So we [and NATO] were in Afghanistan for 11 – 12 years, and probably still have forces in the area. You know, “advisors,” “special” forces and so forth. In all that time we didn’t seem to reduce Afghanistan’s opium production. Perhaps it wasn’t a priority. Perhaps it was just too hard to do. Perhaps our leaders thought it was in our interest to let all of that stuff out into the world; but why would anybody think that? Ask the White House. The people there make those kinds of decisions.

Anyway, today Afghanistan is the premier world exporter of opium. Wikipedia reports, for example, that “Afghanistan’s opium poppy production goes into more than 90% of heroin worldwide.”[18] Isn’t that interesting? I wonder, when “reconstructing” Afghanistan did we pay for new roads to carry that deadly cargo out of the country?

There’s a lot of money in legal drugs, and apparently even more in the illegal ones. I’m sure lots of people made lots of cash off of Afghan poppies while we were there. It just frosts me that so many profited while our troops fought and died there. Who thought that was a good idea? Who benefitted? Does anybody know? If not, why not? Were there “consequences” for the profiteers, or did they just get rich?

Afghanistan leads the world in opium poppy production. In many ways we made that possible. Our reward, or part of it, is that we have a flood of heroin in the world, including here. That’s no reason for us, or the world, to love the Afghan people, or their political leadership.

[1] I’m quoting myself, and more specifically words from an email I sent to an artist friend who’s currently traveling. She was in Finland at the time.

[2] See CNN, Marco, West Virginia city has 27 heroin overdoses in 4 hours (August 18, 2016), available at http://www.cnn.com/2016/08/17/health/west-virginia-city-has-27-heroin-overdoses-in-4-hours/index.html

[3] See CDC Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR), Rudd, et al., Increases in Drug and Opioid Overdose Deaths — United States, 2000–2014 (Jan. 1, 2016), available at http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm6450a3.htm?s_cid=mm6450a3_w Henceforth I’ll refer to this report as MMWR Heroin at __.

[4] See MMWR Heroin at Discussion. Note: Pages of this document are not numbered. Subtopics will be used.

[5] Id.

[6] For a list of other legal opioids, check out WebMD, Opioid Drugs: Dosage, Side Effects, and More Opioid Drugs: Dosage, Side Effects, and More Opioid Drugs: Dosage, Side Effects, and More Opioid Drugs: Dosage, Side Effects, and MoreOpioid Drugs: Dosage, Side Effects and More, at http://www.webmd.com/pain-management/guide/narcotic-pain-medications

[7] Id.

[8] See NIH, National Institute on Drug Abuse, Prescription Drug Abuse, at How do opioids affect the brain and body? available at https://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/research-reports/prescription-drugs/opioids/how-do-opioids-affect-brain-body

[9] See MMWR Heroin at Discussion. “Toxicology tests used by coroners and medical examiners are unable to distinguish between prescription and illicit fentanyl. Based on reports from states and drug seizure data, however, a substantial portion of the increase in synthetic opioid deaths appears to be related to increased availability of illicit fentanyl (7), although this cannot be confirmed with mortality data. For example, five jurisdictions (Florida, Maryland, Maine, Ohio, and Philadelphia, Pennsylvania) that reported sharp increases in illicit fentanyl seizures, and screened persons who died from a suspected drug overdose for fentanyl, detected similarly sharp increases in fentanyl-related deaths (7).§ Finally, illicit fentanyl is often combined with heroin or sold as heroin. Illicit fentanyl might be contributing to recent increases in drug overdose deaths involving heroin. Therefore, increases in illicit fentanyl-associated deaths might represent an emerging and troubling feature of the rise in illicit opioid overdoses that has been driven by heroin.”

[10] See MMWR Heroin at Discussion.

[11] See MMWR Heroin (before the Discussion).

[12] See WV Public Radio, Mistich, Data Viz: When Did West Virginia’s Heroin Problem Begin? Which Counties Are Hurting the Most? (May 22, 2015)

[13] That’s Jefferson County, WV.

[14] That’s Berkeley County, WV.

[15] See CNN, Marco, West Virginia city has 27 heroin overdoses in 4 hours (August 18, 2016), available at http://www.cnn.com/2016/08/17/health/west-virginia-city-has-27-heroin-overdoses-in-4-hours/index.html

[16] For a good timeline, see Council on Foreign Relations, U.S. War in Afghanistan (1999 – present), available at http://www.cfr.org/afghanistan/us-war-afghanistan/p20018

[17] See Time, Thompson, The True Cost of the Afghanistan War May Surprise You (January 1, 2015), available at http://time.com/3651697/afghanistan-war-cost/ . See also Harvard Kennedy School, Bilmes, The Financial Legacy of Iraq and Afghanistan: How Wartime Spending Decisions Will Constrain Future National Security Budgets (March 2013, RWP 13-006) available at https://research.hks.harvard.edu/publications/workingpapers/citation.aspx?PubId=8956&type=WPN

[18] See the Wikipedia entry on opium production in Afghanistan, at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Opium_production_in_Afghanistan